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Caste from a Historical Perspective
(7,942 words)

Social Order in Northwest India at the Time of Gurū Nānak

Al-Bīrūnī, in his early 11th-century Tārīḫ al-Hind (History of India), observed that there were four varṇas (castes; Punj. varaṇs) among the Hindus: Brahmans, Kṣatriyas (Punj. Khatrī…

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Grewal, J.S., “Caste from a Historical Perspective”, in: Brill's Encyclopedia of Sikhism Online, Editor-in-Chief Knut A. Jacobsen. Consulted online on 26 June 2022 <>
First published online: 2017

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