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Caste from a Historical Perspective
(7,942 words)

Social Order in Northwest India at the Time of Gurū Nānak

Al-Bīrūnī, in his early 11th-century Tārīḫ al-Hind (History of India), observed that there were four varṇas (castes; Punj. varaṇs) among the Hindus: Brahmans, Kṣatriyas…

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J.S. Grewal, “Caste from a Historical Perspective”, in: Brill's Encyclopedia of Sikhism Online, Edited by: Knut A. Jacobsen, Gurinder Mann Singh, Kristina Myrvold, Eleanor Nesbitt. Consulted online on 24 February 2020 <>
First published online: 2017
First print edition: 20170712

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