The unification and expansion of the Arabs under the first four caliphs (632–661)
(1,243 words)

The first four caliphs, successors of Muḥammad (d. 632):

ʿAbdallāh Abū Bakr (632–634)

ʿUmar ibn al-Ḫaṭṭāb (634–644)

ʿUtmān ibn ʿAffān (644–656)

ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (656–661)

Muḥammad met such resistance to his doctrine in Makka/Mecca, the town of his birth, that he emigrated with his followers in 622, after long preparations, to the oasis city of Yaṭrīb, subsequently al-Madīna (‘City [of the Prophet]’), where he had engendered great hopes as a mediator in the conflicts between various Arab tribes of the region.

To bring some degre…

Cite this page
Olshausen, E., “The unification and expansion of the Arabs under the first four caliphs (632–661)”, in: Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 3 : Historical Atlas of the Ancient World, English edition by Christine Salazar (2010). Original German-language edition: Historischer Atlas der antiken Welt. Herausgegeben von Anne-Maria Wittke,Eckhart Olshausen und Richard Szydlak. Serie: Der Neue Pauly Supplemente 1. Staffel, herausgegeben von Hubert Cancik, Manfred Landfester und Helmuth Schneider, vol. 3. Stuttgart, Germany. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH (2007). Consulted online on 22 September 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2214-8647_bnps3_BNPA242>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: 9789004167834, 20091241



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