German Assyriologist. Born Erlangen 3. 9. 1850, died Berlin 19. 12. 1922. 1868–1873 studied Indo-European and Semitic Studies at Leipzig and Berlin (1872), doctorate 1873, habil. Berlin 1874. 1877 prof. ext. of Semitic Studies with special focus on Assyriology at Leipzig, 1885 honorary prof. ord. in Semitic languages with special focus on Assyrian, also at Leipzig. 1893/94 prof. ord. in Breslau, 1899 prof. ord. in Berlin and director of the Western Asian Dept. at the Berlin Museum.