German classical archaeologist and Etruscologist. Born Berlin 8. 2. 1852, died Göttingen 15. 8. 1917. School in Berlin. Studied classical philology and archaeology at Göttingen, Munich and Berlin. 1874 doctorate at Munich; 1880 habil. at Göttingen. From 1881, prof. of classical archaeology at Rostock; 1905–1907 first secretary of the DAI Rome. 1907–1917 prof. ord. at Göttingen. Memberships including Göttingen Akademie der Wissenschaften and Akademie gemeinnütziger Wissenschaften zu Erfurt.