German classical archaeologist and classical philologist. Born Kiel 15. 10. 1840, died Rome 6. 3. 1909. Studied at Kiel and Bonn; doctorate 1863 in Kiel with Otto Ribbeck, with a diss. on Tibullus. Thereafter a schoolteacher in Glückstadt. Illness 1869 leading to dismissal from school service. Moved to Rome in 1872, where he worked at the Archaeological Institute and its excavations at Pompeii from 1873; head librarian from 1887; 1889 prof.