Satrap of Bactria, Darius III's general at the battle of Gaugamela. Shortly afterwards he killed Darius, assumed the name Artaxerxes and tried to hold the eastern part of the Persian Empire against Alexander  the Great. Spitamenes i.a. betrayed him; he was condemned to death in Ecbatana for high treason (Arr. Anab., Curt. passim).
F. Holt, Alexander the Great and Bactria, 1989.
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Kuhrt, Amélie (London) and
Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht),
Brill’s New Pauly
, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry.
Consulted online on 30 May 2020 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e215960>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510