Brill’s New Pauly

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(295 words)

(Βύβλος; Býblos).

Already in the Old Kingdom, B. (Gubla), today Ǧubail, c. 30 km north of Beirut ( Berytus), was a port for exporting cedar wood [2; 7]. Contacts between Gubla and Mesopotamia as well as the use of the cuneiform script are documented for the end of the 3rd millennium BC [6]. A pictographic script developed around 2000 BC, the so-called Byblus Script, did not become established. Princes of B., known from hieroglyphic inscriptions of the 19th and 18th cents. BC, are perhaps mentioned in the  Mari Archive [5]. Amongst the  Amarna letters are 67 tablets of Rib-Adda, king of…

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“Byblus”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry. Consulted online on 08 May 2021 <>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510

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