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Caliph
(189 words)

[German version]

(ḫalı̄fa). ‘Successor’, ‘representative’, elliptical for ‘successor of the Prophet’  Muhammad, since the Umayyads (661-750; contested, perhaps even earlier) ‘representative of Allah’. The following caliphs were regarded as ‘rightfully appointed’ (by election; Muhammad did not leave any regulations):  Abu Bakr (632-634),  Omar (634-644), who was the first to also hold the title ‘ruler of the believers’,  Othman (644-656), and  Ali (656-661). Since the  Umayyads, we find hereditary succession. The postulates of the  Abbasids (750-1258) required that th…

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Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale), “Caliph”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry. Consulted online on 14 December 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e605900>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510



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