The Romans used the word capitale whenever the death penalty (also poena capitis) was concerned: for the crime itself, the legal process, as well as in passing and executing a sentence, but also for the loss of personal freedom or citizenship ( deminutio capitis ) and particularly with reference to exile ( exilium ), when -- from the late Republican period -- this indeed replaced the death penalty for Roman citizens.
E. Cantarella, I supplizi capitali in Grecia e a Roma, 1991.
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Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen),
Brill’s New Pauly
, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry.
Consulted online on 14 April 2021 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e226590>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510