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Civil War
(927 words)

(Already in Hdt. Greek ἔμφυλος στάσις/émphylos stásis; πόλεμος/pólemos; Latin bellum civile). Fight between armed citizens of the same state on its territory, which could be particularly fierce in Graeco-Roman antiquity given that ‘citizens’ and ‘soldiers’ were identical and therefore battle-experienced troops encountered each other. The causes lay in social conflicts, political differences or the power aspirations of individuals. Because the boundaries of civil wars are und…

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Eder, Walter (Berlin), “Civil War”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry. Consulted online on 29 November 2021 <>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510

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