Brill’s New Pauly

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[German version]

(Ugaritic il, Hebrew ēl, Akkadian ilu). Common Semitic appellation for ‘god’ (except in Ethiopian) and also the nomen proprium of a deity attested in Mesopotamia since the 3rd millennium BC that apparently belonged to the original Semitic pantheon. Of several etymological hypotheses, the derivation from the root wl, ‘be in front, the first, strong,’ deserves consideration.

While il in Old Akkadian and Amoritic, but also in the texts of  Ebla (3rd millennium) only appears in theophoric personal names, Ugaritic texts (2nd half of the 2nd millenniu…

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Köckert, Matthias (Berlin), “El”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry. Consulted online on 09 June 2023 <>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510

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