The idea of a rulership that encompassed the entire known world was expressed in Mesopotamia in various royal epithets ─ i.a. ‘Ruler of the Four Regions (of the world)’ (šar kibrāt arbaim/erbettim), ‘Ruler over the Totality’ (šar kiššatim), ‘Ruler of Rulers’ (šar šarrāni). The title ‘Ruler of the Four Regions (of the world)’ is first documented for the Akkadian ruler Naramsin (23rd cent. BC). However, the claim inherent in this title did not hold true according to…
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Renger, Johannes (Berlin) and
Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel),
“Empires, Concept of empire”, in:
Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry.
Consulted online on 13 December 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e12210200>