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[German version]

Procuring information about the political and military situation of the enemy played an important part in Greek and Roman warfare (cf. Thuc. 6,32,3 f.). Aside from statements made by deserters,  prisoners of war, or even merchants (cf. Caes. Gall. 4,20,3 f.) and travellers, army commanders and politicians made use of the knowledge gained by spies. In Greek texts, spies are referred to as κατάσκοποι/katáskopoi, although the distinction between espionage and military intelligence is murky (Hdt. 7,145 f.; Thuc. 6,63,3). In Caesar, spies (speculatores) are disti…

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Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn), “Espionage”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry. Consulted online on 22 October 2019 <>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510

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