Brill’s New Pauly

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(228 words)

[German version]

The chief god of the Biqāʿ Plain, in which the Arabian kingdom of the Ituraeans ( Ituraea) had been established from the 2nd cent. BC, had been since the pre-Arabian period the ‘Lord of the Biqāʿ’ (bʿl bqʿ). Under the name of Zeus Helios or Juppiter (Optimus Maximus) H., he was worshipped in Roman times in  Baalbek (= Heliopolis), where his main temple was erected on older remains. His solarisation must have been the result of Ptolemaic influence. Well attested iconographically and epigraphically, this god is a  weather god, rain dispenser, lord of the springs, orac…

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Niehr, Herbert (Tübingen), “Heliopolitanus”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry. Consulted online on 21 July 2024 <>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510

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