Brill’s New Pauly

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(878 words)

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While in the early Principate period, Roman  penal law distinguished primarily between citizens and non-citizens and this was the criterion in terms of personal rights for the determination of punitive measures, from the end of the 2nd cent. AD social rank determined the treatment of individuals by the courts. The differentiation in punishments is linked in the legal texts and in modern research primarily with two terms, honestiores and humiliores. The honestiores were the members of the privileged classes (senators, equites, decurions, veterans); they were e…

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Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich), “Honestiores/Humiliores”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry. Consulted online on 30 July 2021 <>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510

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