(Old Persian Vindafarna, Elamite Mindaparna). Supporter of Darius I in the conspiracy against (Pseudo-)Bardiya  ( Gaumata) [1. DB 3.84] in 522 BC. He crushed the second Babylonian rebellion [1. DB 83-91]. Herodotus (3,118-119) tells of an alleged uprising of I. for which his entire family was exterminated; only the brother of his wife was spared at her pleading (a parallel to Sophocles' Antigone).
1 R. G. Kent, Old Persian, 1953
2 M. Mayrhofer, Onomastica Persepolitana, 1973, 8.…
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Kuhrt, Amélie (London) and
Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht),
Brill’s New Pauly
, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry.
Consulted online on 14 August 2020 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e525180>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510