(πνεῦμα/pneûma; Lat. spiritus).
The primary meaning of pneuma (< πνέω/pnéō, 'blow, waft') is wind or breath. In scientific and philosophical literature, the term gradually acquired a more technical meaning. In the Hellenistic and subsequent periods, pneuma is a central idea in a number of important medical and natural-philosophical (including theological) systems.
B. Historical overview
As early as the 5th and 4th cents. BC, pneuma i…