(originally pro consule, 'instead of the consul(es)': attested in inscriptions from ILS 5945, i.e. 135 BC, on; in literature, e.g., Cic. Phil. 10,26; Liv. 8,23,12; for linguistic use cf. ; Greek ἀνθύπατος/anthýpatos) was a state official in Rome who in the sphere of his office outside the city exercised full consular authority (imperium), but was not authorized to consult the auspicia (see augures) (Cic. Div. 2,76).
When there were insufficient magistrates with imperium, th…
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Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne),
Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry.
Consulted online on 16 October 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e1009260>