Brill’s New Pauly

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Rulers
(2,915 words)

I. Ancient Orient

[German version]

A. Terminology

Designations for rulers include: (1) descriptive terms like the Sumerian LUGAL (literally 'big man'), equated in vocabularies with the Akkadian šarru ('shining one(?)'), malku ('adviser', Hebrew melek), Hittite ḥaššu- ('well-born one'); furthermore, Sumerian NUN and Akkadian rubāum ('most excellent one'), and Sumerian EN, Akkadian bēlu, Hittite išḫa- ('lord'); these apply regardless of the size and structure of the area of rule. …

Cite this page
Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin), Kahl, Jochem (Münster), Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) and Eder, Walter (Berlin), “Rulers”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry. Consulted online on 28 October 2020 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e511840>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510



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