Brill’s New Pauly

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(4,529 words)

I. Mesopotamia

[German version]

A. Scribes and schools

In the course of the long history of Mesopotamian cuneiform culture from about 3200 BC to the end of the 1st millennium BC, scribes and schools undoubtedly underwent more changes than the continuity of terminology seems to indicate. At the beginning of the 3rd millennium, when cuneiform writing had already been used for more than two centuries, the art of writing itself had not yet become a profession in its own rights. This is evident from t…

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Cavigneaux, Antoine (Geneva), Fischer-Elfert, Hans - W. and Binder, Vera (Gießen), “Scribes”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry. Consulted online on 18 August 2022 <>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510

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