Brill’s New Pauly

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(2,148 words)

(ὧραι, hôrai; tempora anni).

[German version]

I. Asia Minor/ Egypt

The definition of seasons and of a year as a unit of time was largely governed by regularly recurring natural events, such as the floods of the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia (a short vegetation period and summer drought, the topic of the Sumerian poem about the dispute between summer and winter, see Kindler 19, 604) and of the Nile in Egypt (Nile inundation, vegetation period, s…

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Freydank, Helmut (Potsdam), Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) and Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum), “Seasons”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry. Consulted online on 15 May 2021 <>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510

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