From the beginnings of the pólis in the 8th/7th cents. BC, urban fortifications in the true sense began to appear in the Greek world. During a siege, spears, slings and bows would be used as long-distance weapons for attack and defence; hand-thrown stones were also an effective weapon of defence. Attack technology was modest: ladders for climbing walls, axes and simple battering rams for breaking open gates. Meanw…
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Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg),
Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry.
Consulted online on 08 April 2020 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e1000380>