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A central concept of Roman law, etymology unclear. Stipulatio is a verbal form of promise to provide a service, linked to a question and corresponding answer format, i.e. a verbal contract containing a one-sided obligation (Paul. Sent. 2,3). The future creditor formulated the question to the future debtor, who had to reply giving a repetition of the verb used in the question (Dari spondes? Spondeo, 'Do you pledge that it will be given? I so pledge', etc., Gai. Inst. 3,92). The verbs most commonly used were spondere, promittere, fidepromittere, fideiubere, the first be…

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Forgó, Nikolaus (Vienna), “Stipulatio”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry. Consulted online on 27 March 2023 <>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510

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