Brill’s New Pauly

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(6,422 words)

[German version]

I. Mesopotamia

Income needed to finance tasks of state and general social functions (administration, the military, irrigation, prestige buildings, the court, cults, etc.) did not come from an all-embracing system of taxation levied on individuals, transactions or property, but on a general duty of service and labour on the part of subjects. Under the oikos economy (3rd millennium BC), the palace’s income came predominantly from the domestic operation o…

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Renger, Johannes (Berlin), Römer, Malte (Berlin), Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld), Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn), Pack, Edgar (Cologne) and Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich), “Taxes”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry. Consulted online on 23 October 2021 <>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510

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