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The Latin word virtus generally refers to the essence of 'man' (vir), expressed in particular as courage (on other meanings, cf. Virtue). However, as a concept of social and ethical values, the Latin virtus translated the Greek aretḗ. In Christian usage, too, virtus comprises many different 'virtues' (Aug. Civ. 4,20). At Rome, V. was honoured as the goddess of 'manfulness', at first in association with Honos. The circumstances of temple foundations and the cultic iconography of V. on Republican and Imperial coins (a helmeted female figure with a lance, he…

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Wardle, David (Cape Town), “Virtus”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider, English Edition by: Christine F. Salazar, Classical Tradition volumes edited by: Manfred Landfester, English Edition by: Francis G. Gentry. Consulted online on 21 September 2021 <>
First published online: 2006
First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510

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