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Manifesto of the 93
(963 words)

Manifesto of the 93

Published on October 4, 1914, an appeal addressed “to the civilized world” (An die Kulturwelt! Ein Aufruf ) and endorsed by 93 German men of letters, scientists, scholars and artists, rejected as “untrue” allegations made by the Entente against the German “militarism” and atrocities verifiably committed by the German Army in neutral Belgium. The Manifesto followed numerous other, similar declarations made especially by well-known cultural figures on both sides in the “war of the minds” (Krieg der Geister, the title of a 1915 collection of international es…

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vom Bruch, Rüdiger, “Manifesto of the 93”, in: Brill’s Digital Library of World War I. Consulted online on 29 February 2024 <>
First published online: 2015

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