Brill’s Digital Library of World War I

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(6,394 words)


On the eve of the First World War, the Russian Empire faced severe internal and external crises. The autumn 1912 elections to the Duma (the parliament) had clearly demonstrated the country’s inner disunity, as did the numerous strikes and expressions of rural discontent that had developed into a recurring source of unrest. A compromise between the quarreling political parties, between the interests of the workers and those of the entrepreneurs, and between the farmers and the owners of lar…

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Dahlmann, Dittmar, “Russia”, in: Brill’s Digital Library of World War I. Consulted online on 27 February 2024 <>
First published online: 2015

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