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Article XX (a) GATT
(10,909 words)



Article XX (a) GATT

(a)     necessary to protect public morals;

A. General

1     Art. XX (a) had rarely been discussed in WTO dispute settlement before China—Audiovisual Services.1 Although it had occasionally been invoked by defendant parties together with other Art. XX exceptions to justify internal measures that otherwise violated GATT obligations,2 neither panels nor the Appellate Body had dealt with the provision before the Audiovisual case. Art. XX (a…

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Dorn, Jenny, “Article XX (a) GATT”, in: Commentaries on World Trade Law Online, Peter-Tobias Stoll and Holger Hestermeyer (General Editors); Laura Wanner, Gregory Messenger, Kiliane Huyghebaert, Jin Woo Kim, Markus Wagner, Patrick Abel, Christian Riffel (Volume Editors). Consulted online on 02 March 2024 <>
First published online: 2022

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