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The Goring Ox at Nuzi (3.121)
(391 words)

Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Courtcases; Nuzi


The favorite textbook illustration of negligence in the law collections of the ancient Near East is that of the goring ox (Finkelstein 1973, 1981; Jackson 1974). In reality, cases of oxen goring may have been rare; only one such case has been identified in the surviving documentation. It illustrates, to some extent, a provision found in the Laws of Eshnunna ( COS COSB.2.130 §53) and the Covenant Code (Exod 21:35f.). It happens …

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Hallo, William W., “The Goring Ox at Nuzi (3.121)”, in: Context of Scripture Online, Editor in Chief: W. Hallo. Consulted online on 03 December 2021 <>

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