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Greetings from a Pagan to a Jew (3.87E)
(755 words)

Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Miscellaneous Texts; Aramaic Ostraca


Discovered by Gautier in the 1908/09 season and published by Dupont-Sommer in 1944 (Clermont-Ganneau 277), this ostracon was not written by the popular wharf scribe. It is a palimpsest and is unique in being written on only one side and containing no message beyond an elaborate blessing by four pagan deities. Leading gods in the Babylonian pantheon (cf. Sefire A8–9 =  KAI 222;  COS COSB.2.82), a…

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Porten, Bezalel, “Greetings from a Pagan to a Jew (3.87E)”, in: Context of Scripture Online, Editor in Chief: W. Hallo. Consulted online on 25 November 2020 <>

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