The figure of the archangel already appears in the Hebrew Bible, but the Greek term archangelos (Latin archangelus) does not occur in the Greek versions of the OT. The word appears in (early) Greek passages in the OT Pseudepigrapha (e.g. Greek text of 1 Enoch) and there are two occurrences in the NT (1 Thess. 4.16; Jude 9).
In Jewish literature from the Second Temple period a tendency can be observed to differentiate between groups and categories of angels (cf. 1 Enoch 61:10; 2 Enoch 19:1–5; Angel)…