The title ‘Lord of Heavens’, used for the various supreme gods in Syro-Palestine, Anatolia and Mesopotamia during the 2nd millennium bce, later became the name of a specific deity venerated throughout the Semitic world from the 1st millennium bce until the first four centuries of the Christian era. St. Augustin (Quaest. Hept. VII 16) refers to him as dominus coeli.
The earliest Phoenician attestation of Baal-Shamem comes from the building-inscription from the 10th century bce of king Yeḥı…