Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online

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Etemmu אטים
(2,351 words)

I. Name

Eṭemmu is the main term for ‘ghost’ in Akkadian. It is the primary Akkadian equivalent or translation of Sum. gidim, from which word it may derive. The term eṭemmu seems to underlie the biblical ʾiṭṭîm in Isa. 19.3, where however the final mem is treated as if it were the Hebrew marker of the masculine plural.

II. Identity

Eṭemmu is a spirit, more properly a ghost. Wind imagery is associated with ghosts (and demons)—note the use of líl for ‘ghost’ (Lilith). Ghosts are heard, felt and especially se…

Cite this page
T. Abusch, “Etemmu אטים”, in: Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online, Edited by: Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter W. van der Horst. Consulted online on 02 February 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2589-7802_DDDO_DDDO_Etemmu>

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