In accordance with Mesopotamian, Anatolian and North Syrian evidence we find the word-pair ‘heaven and earth’ also in the OT scriptures, mainly in deuteronomistic and prophetic texts, where the cosmos is called upon as a witness. Besides these occurrences we find heaven and earth in parallelism to describe the whole cosmos.
Outside the Biblical world the pair heaven-and-earth has different degrees of divinity. First of all we can find certain gods who bear epithets (AkkGE. 54.64.81–82.1…