Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online

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Viper אפעה
(285 words)

I. Name

The viper (ʾepʿeh) occurs three times in the Hebrew Bible, always in poetic contexts to describe negative environments or sensations. Third-millennium texts from Mesopotamia attest to the veneration of a god Ibaʾum, etymologically related to Heb. ʾepʿeh.

II. Identity

A third-millennium Akkadian seal depicting a fully developed snake-dragon is dedicated to a god i-ba-um (R. M. Boehmer, Die Entwicklung der Glyptik während der Akkad-Zeit [Berlin 1965] Tafel XLVIII no. 570). This snake-god …

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K. van der Toorn, “Viper אפעה”, in: Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online, Edited by: Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter W. van der Horst. Consulted online on 23 March 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2589-7802_DDDO_DDDO_Viper>

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