Deut. 2.20 presents the Zamzummites, zamzummîm, as the Ammonite designation of the former inhabitants of the Ammonite area. Since the Zamzummites are interpreted as a tribe of the Rephaim related to the Enakites (Giants), it can be assumed that the Zamzummites are enfeebled spirits of the dead (Pope 1981:170; Hübner 1992: 163–164). Their name is etymologically connected to zmm, ‘to contrive evil’ (HALAT 262; Hübner 1992:212).
Unlike the Rephaim, the Zamzummites are not mentioned in texts outside the…