(2,048 words)

Aḥwāl, ‘modes’, a controversial theological and philosophical doctrine introduced by the well-known Muʿtazilī theologian Abū Hāshim al-Jubbāʾī (q.v.).

Although Abū Hāshim was one of the founders of the Muʿtazilī school of Baṣra and the exponent of important theological perspectives, there is no extant work by him. His opinions were transmitted by his students, followers or opponents. The same applies to the doctrine of aḥwāl; and in order to explain it, there is no choice but to refer to what others have said. Abū Hāshim began by examining the maʿānī doctrine of Muʿammar b. ʿAbbād,…

Cite this page
Mojtahed Shabestari, Mohammad and Negahban, Farzin, “Aḥwāl”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary. Consulted online on 12 December 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1875-9831_isla_COM_0233>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 978-90-04-16860-2, 20080710, 978-90-04-17859-5, 20091123, 9789004191655, 20110912

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