(5,532 words)

Druze, the enigmatic, and even extravagant personality of the sixth Fāṭimid caliph and sixteenth Ismaili Imam al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh (who ruled in Cairo from 386/996 to 411/1021) incited some of his most enthusiastic dāʿīs to proclaim publicly his divinity in the year 408/1017. Considered to be the last and ultimate manifestation of divinity in human form, al-Ḥākim was supposed to have abrogated all previous religions, both in their outward, literal (ẓāhir), and in their hidden, esoteric (bāṭin) aspects.

This doctrine was professed initially by two Ismaili dāʿīs: Ḥamza b. ʿAlī and…

Cite this page
Daniel De Smet, “Druze”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary. Consulted online on 20 October 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1875-9831_isla_COM_036079>
First published online: 2017

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