Ethics (akhlāq) is the branch of the humanities that investigates the value of human character traits and actions. This discipline is not concerned with a historical enquiry into the character and behaviour of human beings, and it does not attempt to establish the natural causes and reasons for their emergence and existence. Rather, it studies them insofar as they occupy a particular position in a system of moral values.
As collections of values that of…
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part 1: Gholamreza Avani,
with an addition by M.I. Waley and
Part 2 and 3: Ahmad Pakatchi,
Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
Consulted online on 19 September 2021 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1875-9831_isla_COM_037156>