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(2,245 words)

Ḥawāla, an Arabic noun which means ‘note of exchange’, ‘transfer’ and ‘change’, hence a transfer of debt or indebtedness, from the root ḥ-w-l meaning ‘to change’ and ‘to transfer’ (al-Farāhīdī, 3/299; Ibn Manẓūr, 11/190; al-Fīrūzābādī, 1/989). In a technical legal sense, ḥawāla is the cession or assignment of a debt to a third party, whereby the financial obligation or liability (dhimma) of a debtor to a particular creditor is transferred to another, so that the latter assumes the debt. This is a definition agreed upon by both Sunni and Shiʿi jurists (al-ʿAllāma al-Ḥillī, Qawāʿid, 2/162…

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Safar Beigzadeh and Translated by Alexander Khaleeli, “Ḥawāla”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Farhad Daftary. Consulted online on 22 September 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1875-9831_isla_SIM_045741>
First published online: 2022

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