(2,591 words)

, Muḥammad , was born in 1873 (or more probably 1876) in Sialkot, Pand̲j̲āb. During his studies in Lahore he became acquainted with Sir Thomas Arnold, who was partly responsible for his coming to England in 1905. In Cambridge, Iḳbāl, already a noted romantic and Indian-nationalist poet in Urdu, studied philosophy under the Hegelian J. M. E. McTaggart, and law. In 1907 he visited Germany and obtained his Ph. D. in Munich with F. Hommel. His thesis The development of metaphysics in Persia shows already his interest in Islamic mystical philosophy, which he judged, then, from a m…

Cite this page
Schimmel, Annemarie, “Iḳbāl”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 16 November 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_3511>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

▲   Back to top   ▲