(1,577 words)

, a term from the religious vocabulary, of Ḳurʾānic origin, which signifies the act of “associating” with God, in other words, accepting the presence at His side of other divinities; it may be translated either literally, by associationism or, in more explicit fashion, by polytheism . In numerous instances in the Ḳurʾān there is criticism of the “associators” ( al-mus̲h̲rikūn , 42 occurrences; also encountered nine times is the phrase allad̲h̲īna as̲h̲rakū ), defined as those who invoke ( yadʿūna ), adopt ( yattak̲h̲id̲h̲ūna ) and worship ( yaʿbudūna ), besides God ( min dūni ’llāh ), ot…

Cite this page
Gimaret, D., “S̲h̲irk”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 20 October 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_6965>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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