(783 words)

(a.) a term of Islamic law meaning punishment in all its forms, encompassing both discretionary punishments and those designated by a text as ḥadd [q.v.]. The root meaning of the word, from ʿaḳaba , indicates a following or consequential object or action. The word itself took on the meaning of punishment that follows from a crime or prohibition ( LʿA , i, 611-24). Frequently it is confused with d̲j̲azāʾ which, unlike ʿuḳūba , can be both punishment or reward. The rationale behind the Islamic legal theory of punishment seems to oscillate between two contrasting sch…

Cite this page
Dien, Mawil Y. Izzi, “ʿUḳūba”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 17 November 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_7698>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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