Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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(18,779 words)

is the ordinary word for "slave" in Arabic of all periods (the usual plural in this sense is ʿabīd , although the Ḳurʾān has ʿibād : xxiv, 32), more particularly for "male slave", "female slave" being ama (pl. imāʾ ). Both words are of old Semitic stock; Biblical Hebrew uses them in the same meaning. Classical Arabic also expresses the idea of "slave", in the singular of both genders and in the collective, by the generic term raḳīḳ , which however is not found in the Ḳurʾān. On the other h…

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Brunschvig, R., “ʿAbd”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 01 April 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0003>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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