(344 words)

(present-day [Turkish] Revanda Kalesi; Frankish Ravendel; Armenian Arevěntan), a fortress of the north Syrian borderlands, situated south of Gaziantep (ʿAyn Tāb [see ʿaynṭāb ]), and about 16 km/10 miles west of Kilis on the Turkish side of the modern frontier with Syria. It occupies the top of a conical hill overlooking the upper ʿAfrīn River. We first hear of the place in 490-1/1097, at the start of the Crusades, when it was seized by Baldwin of le Bourg from the Turks, who had taken it from the Armenians, apparently…

Cite this page
Morray, D.W., “al-Rāwandān”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 15 October 2018 <>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

▲   Back to top   ▲