(1,478 words)

, commander, governor, prince. The term seems to be basically Islamic (Naḳāʾiḍ, 7, 964; Ibn Durayd, Ḏj̲amhara, iii, 437. In the Ḳurʾān, only the expression ulu ’l-amr is found (sūra iv, 59, 83), but amīr occurs often in traditions (cf. Wensinck, Concordance , s.v.).

The sources for the early period frequently use the terms ʿāmil [q.v.] and amīr as synonyms (cf. Hamidullah, Documents, 36, 38 and 39, 83). In the reports on the meeting of the saḳīfa , amīr is used for the head of the Muslim community (Ṭabarī I, 1840, 1841; Ibn Saʿd, II, 3, 126, 129). During the caliphate of …

Cite this page
Duri, A.A., “Amīr”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 24 February 2019 <>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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