ʿArīf
(1,418 words)

, "one who knows", a term applied to the holders of certain military or civil offices, based on competence in customary matters, ʿurf , as opposed to knowledge of the law, which characterizes the ʿālim . There may have existed in some cases de facto ʿurafāʾ in Arabia already prior to and at the time of Muḥammad (al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, Umm , iv, 81) who is said to have condemned them (Ibn Ḥanbal, iv, 133; Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Nihāya , iii, 86; al-Sarak̲h̲sī, S̲h̲arḥ al-Siyar al-Kabīr , i, 98; al-Buk̲h̲ārī, al-Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Kabīr , ii, 341). But such traditions are obviously influenced by later conditions.

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Cite this page
Ali, Saleh A. el- and Cahen, Cl., “ʿArīf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 18 November 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_0723>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007



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