(1,793 words)

(pl. aḥwāl ), Ṣūfī technical term ( iṣtilāḥa ) which can be briefly translated by “spiritual state”. D̲h̲u ’l-Nūn al-Miṣrī (d. 245/859) outlines the distinction which was to become classic between aḥwāl (“states”) and maḳāmāt (“stations”). We find a more highly developed elaboration in his contemporary in Bag̲h̲dād, Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Muḥāsibī (165-243/781-857).

The term ḥāl belonged to the technical vocabulary of the grammarians, the physicians and the jurists. It seems indeed (cf. L. Massignon, Passion d’a…

Cite this page
Gardet, L., “Ḥāl”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 13 December 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0254>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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