(pl. aḥwāl ), Ṣūfī technical term ( iṣtilāḥa ) which can be briefly translated by “spiritual state”. D̲h̲u ’l-Nūn al-Miṣrī (d. 245/859) outlines the distinction which was to become classic between aḥwāl (“states”) and maḳāmāt (“stations”). We find a more highly developed elaboration in his contemporary in Bag̲h̲dād, Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Muḥāsibī (165-243/781-857).
The term ḥāl belonged to the technical vocabulary of the grammarians, the physicians and the jurists. It seems indeed (cf. L. Massignon, Passion d’a…
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Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs.
Consulted online on 13 December 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0254>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007