Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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(1,261 words)

(a.) “knowledge”, the opposite of d̲j̲ahl “ignorance”, is connected, on the one hand, with ḥilm [q.v.], and on the other hand with a number of terms a more precise definition of which will be found in the relevant articles: maʿrifa , fiḳh , ḥikma , s̲h̲uʿūr ; the most frequent correlative of ʿilm is however maʿrifa. The verb ʿalima is used in the Ḳurʾān both in the perfect and in the imperfect, and also in the imperative, with the meaning of “to know”, but in the imperative and in the perfect it seems often to mean basically “to learn” (without effort, the fifth form taʿallama being used when a nu…

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Ed., “ʿIlm”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 07 July 2022 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_3537>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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