The earliest documentary evidence for commercial privileges emanating from Muslim chanceries in the Mediterranean world dates from the 6th/12th century. While it is unlikely that these documents represent the earliest manifestation of that diplomatic and commercial activity between rulers of Islam and Christendom which culminated in the Ottoman Capitulations, it is probably useless to spec…
Cite this page
Lambton, A.K.S. and
Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs.
Consulted online on 25 January 2021 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0371>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007